The Federal Reserve System Essay example
1453 Words6 Pages
The Federal Reserve System In December of 1913, the Federal Reserve System (Fed) was created by the Federal Reserve Act. According to Congress, the role of the Federal Reserve System is to promote maximum employment, stability and growth of the economy, and moderate long-term interest rates. The Fed employs Monetary Policy in an effort to manage both the money supply and interest rates while stimulating the economy to operate close to full employment. One school of thought called Monetarism believes that the Federal Reserve should simply pursue policies to eliminate inflation. Zero inflation may help the market to avoid imbalances, stabilize the business cycle, and promote steady growth in our economy. On the other hand, zero…show more content…
There is always some unemployment resulting from workers failing to hook up with potential employers due to imperfect information. However, neither the demands nor supplies of labor nor the pattern of information among firms and employees is affected by inflation. Hence, inflation cannot affect the level of employment and unemployment and the Phillips curve is as shown. Both inflation and deflation have no affect on unemployment and output. Therefore, from this standpoint, all rates of inflation are optimal. Inflation simply does not matter.
Another version of this theory maintains that the optimal rate of inflation is the actual rate. For example, if an economy currently has a 6-percent inflation rate, 6 percent is the optimal rate. The inflation itself does not matter and in the long run the Phillips curve is vertical but, lowering the equilibrium rate of inflation results in lower output. It is costly to lower inflation because economic agents have inflation expectations, which are difficult to adjust. A period of higher unemployment results from getting agents to lower expectations and this implies lost output. Since there is no benefit to reducing inflation, the implication is evident - the Fed should stick with the actual rate.
There are also many economists who would agree with the claim that zero inflation is the optimal rate of inflation. This claim employs
The Purpose of the Federal Reserve System Essay
2695 Words11 Pages
Over the past few years we have realized the impact that the Federal Government has on our economy, yet we never knew enough about the subject to understand why. While taking this Economics course it has brought so many things to our attention, especially since we see inflation, gas prices, unemployment and interest rates on the rise. It has given us a better understanding of the effect of the Government on the economy, the stock market, the interest rates, etc. Since the Federal Government has such a control over our Economy, we decided to tackle the subject of the Federal Reserve System and try to get a better understanding of the history, the structure, and the monetary policy of the power that it holds.
The Federal Reserve System…show more content…
One form of direct control can be exercised by adjusting the legal reserve ratio (the proportion of its deposits that a member bank must hold in its reserve account), and as a result, increasing or decreasing the amount of new loans that the commercial banks can make. Because loans give rise to new deposits, the possible money supply is, in this way, expanded or reduced. This policy tool has not been used too much in recent years. The money supply may also be influenced through manipulation of the discount rate, which is the rate if interest charged by the Federal Reserve banks on short-term secured loans to member banks. Since these loans are typically sought to maintain reserves at their required level, an increase in the cost of such loans has an effect similar to that of increasing the reserve requirement. The classic method of indirect control is through open-market operations, first widely used in the 1920s and now used daily to make some adjustment to the market. Federal Reserve bank sales or purchases of securities on the open market tend to reduce or increase the size of commercial bank reserves. When the Federal Reserve sells securities, the purchasers pay for them with checks drawn on their deposits, thereby reducing the reserves of the banks on which the checks are drawn. The three instruments of control explained above have been conceded to be more effective in preventing inflation in times of high economic activity than in bringing about revival from a