Software Tools Speech Analysis Essay

In the rhetorical analysis essay, you’ll have to write about the writing. You would think it is something complicated, but our article is ready to help. This type of writing assignment requires you to disrupt phrases and words of the author in order to find out the real sense. In such a way, you’ll distinguish the unique writing style of the author. It will be possible to define strategies which he used to interact with the reader. Only with the help of his own style combined, he can get a reaction. Persuasive methods also matter in creating an impression.

If you have to write a rhetorical analysis essay, probably you will analyze the speeches of politicians, artists or other influential figures. If you have to analyze the text, find out its strategies, and give an explanation:

  • How do all of the parts of the persuasive phrases work together?
  • Do they have the right effect on target audience?

Make Your Paper A+!

How to Write a Rhetorical Analysis Essay: Preparation Stage

If you want to succeed with your rhetorical analysis essay on the exam, the efficient preparation is needed. AP exam always has strict time limits. That’s why a well-conducted preparation can ensure high test score. Don’t waste your time on just reading. Take the notes! You have not much time for reading. It’s important to allocate time for analyzing before writing. If you take notes from the very beginning of your reading, it can significantly simplify the presence of analysis. It’s better for you to keep in mind such questions as:

  • Who was the author of the text?
  • What did he intend to say?
  • Who was the reader of chosen analyzed piece?
  • What was the particular purpose of the text?
  • What was the expected result plus forecast?

Keep all these questions in your mind and try to give the answers. All author’s strategies and persuasive phrases will be in a full view.

If you don’t know where to get a great rhetorical analysis essay example, you can find support on this website.

SOAPSTone: What Does It Stand for in Rhetorical Analysis Example Essay?

Define your SOAPSTone. This abbreviation includes six critical elements:

  • The speaker identifies author’s initials. When there are any credentials that point to the writer’s authority on the subject, you must take it into account as well. Mind that the narrator and writer might be different, so you may refer to both of them.
  • The occasion is the type of the content along with its context. A student can notice a significant difference between a research paper developed for the scientific conference and a memo composed to an expert in the studied field. An essay may be written on different occasions.
  • The target audience consists of your readers. The information you provide and techniques used depend on whom you wish to impress. The information may be given to other students to understand some topic. Information given to field professionals should include more facts. In other words, audience and occasion are interrelated. To present a rhetorical analysis paper to the right reader, the writer has to focus on scientists, researchers, or field experts as in the example above.
  • The original purpose is all about the main point of the paper. What do you want readers to know? For what reason have you conducted a research on particular topic? Selling a product/service is the possible purpose of your article.
  • The subject is simply the topic of your essay, article, or research paper.

Strategies you implement are usually defined as the tone of your information. Here is the summary of tone types:

  1. Diction + Tropes
  2. Syntax + Schemes
  3. Details + Lack of Details

Explaining Ethos, Logos, and Pathos on the Rhetorical Analysis Essay Example

Pathos, logos, and ethos (a.k.a. modes of persuasion) have different senses based on the beginnings of a human mind: sensual, mental and moral parts of the personality.

Logos usually appeals to logic. It communicates with the rational part of the mind. The author uses rational thinking methods to reach out to the audience and to persuade the reader using rational reasons.

Logos example:

“Centuries of history has taught people that there are peaceful ways to achieve mutual understanding.”

The pathos communicates through emotions. In this part of writing, the author talks with the readers’ emotions. He uses the special way of expressing feelings.

Pathos example:

“The committee will accept your ideas as they are all based on the credible evidence from the official company’s report.”

The ethos sentences call to human’s ethics.

Ethos example:

“Chiefs from Japan recommend this version of receipt while cooking fish!”

In every English AP exam, the text would necessarily contain at least one persuasive method. You’ll have to figure it out and analyze its effect.

10 Most Effective Rhetorical Analysis Essay Topics of All Times

Need a great topic before start working on your rhetorical analysis essay example?

  1. Thank People for Smoking
  2. What about the role of three witches in “Macbeth?”
  3. Analysis of the Presidential speech by Obama. What mood did it have?
  4. Analyze information presented in Emancipation Proclamation by Abraham Lincoln
  5. William Wallace Believes in His Men
  6. Did Martin Luther King Believe in ‘His Dream?”
  7. Tattoos, piercing, and rock clothing symbolize freedom and human right to choose
  8. Persuade students in the importance of school uniforms
  9. Provide an analysis of the moving speech you have personally experienced
  10. Analyze “The Raven” by Edgar Allen Poe

Some of these rhetorical analysis examples may generate specifically precise vocabularies to convey meaning.

Quick Help with Any Topic

Rhetorical Analysis Essay Outline

When you finish reading and analyzing, it’s time for making an outline of the analysis. Use lecture notes, find out all strategies. If we talk about the essay structure, it’s better to follow common rules and to include 5 or 6 paragraphs in your text. It is a quite reliable writing technique. Use it to satisfy the application commission/jury. Make sure that the paragraphs are approximately equal.

  • How to Write an Introduction to a Rhetorical Analysis Essay

For sure, you would spend most of your time on writing body paragraphs. An introduction is a very important part of the academic paper as well. It would be great if you make it short and exciting. In this part of the academic writing piece, one has to summarize all main persuasive facts and arguments. It helps the reader of your essay to get the main point of view and the basic message of the excerpt. A good introduction can explain the mood and author’s tone. Try to intrigue your reader. He must be willing to continue reading in order to find out other strategies and statements to explain in your rhetorical evaluation essay.
  • Body Paragraphs of the Rhetorical Analysis Essay

It is the main part of your work. It contains all important statements and arguments. That’s why the body paragraphs have to answer many questions. In this part of your writing assignment, analyze and explain how the author maintains his statement and which strategies and devices he applies.

Explain the thesis and persuasive statements of the author. Devote each paragraph to a particular strategy. Your successful analysis and explanation of the thesis should always answer next questions:

  • What is the strategy?
  • Does the strategy actually work?
  • Are there any working examples of the strategy?
  • What was this particular strategy used for?
  • Did this strategy have an effect on the audience?
  • What feeling does this strategy provoke?

Take into account also diction and tone and don’t forget about the length of sentences.

  • Rhetorical Analysis Conclusion

When the main part of the rhetorical analysis essay is ready, it’s time for writing a conclusion. The conclusion should be strong and clear. If you want your essay to be a good piece of academic writing, explain the affected which the text had on the audience. You have to show the result of the author’s speech and its impact. It will be great if you conclude every statement, show its significance and rhetorical arguments.

Main Rhetorical Analysis Tips 



You’ve finished writing your text, but it’s too early to relax. You still have to read some useful information on how to write a rhetorical analysis essay. If you have at least 5 minutes before the exam is over, you can use them in order to make your essay as perfect as possible. Here comes the detailed checklist going through which any writer will have a great opportunity to raise his essay’s quality!

  1. Length

Do not overload your rhetorical essay with unnecessary information. The introductory paragraph and conclusion should be the shortest parts. The best size would be around 500-750 words (if the teacher did not mention word count in the requirements).

  1. Vocabulary

Use all diversity of your vocabulary. It is a good way to get some additional points from your professor. It will show you as a well-skilled student who can write in different ways and can meet all requirements.

  1. Grammar

Don’t consider this point dull. It may seem too obvious, but nobody, including course professor, likes to read a text with grammar and punctuation errors. Check your text for any problems with sentence structure. Alternate long and short sentences with smart balance. Try to avoid all kinds of abbreviations.

Rhetorical Analysis Essay Example:

  1. Use Present Tense Mostly

It will be better to use Present Tense in your rhetorical essay. It is an unspoken rule for academic assignments. Just make sure that you build your arguments in the present tense, and you’ll avoid any confusions. Besides, it makes the reader of the writing piece feel like all happens at the exact moment.

  1. Consistency

Choose the right writing style and the correct transition words. It is important to understand that the smoother the text seems when it is read, the clearer the statements and the content will be. Use only correct punctuations when it is needed. Build strong and clear transitions as your text must flow like a river. Be consistent: don’t jump from one point to another. Stick to the general logic of every persuasive argument.

  1. Using Up-to-Date Techniques

Try to select the most recent sources as well as writing techniques. It is important to dedicate some time to learn different strategies used by the modern writers and scholars. Don’t make your analysis essay too strict and boring. Keep to the point, but try to enrich the text with some unexpected ideas.

  1. Gaining Experience from the Great Examples

Start searching for the great examples of rhetorical analysis essays from the very beginning. Find one on the topic similar to your main point. Follow the given outline or even rewrite the whole text using your original approach.

  1. Strong Supporting Words to Apply

Any example of rhetorical analysis includes strong arguments made of powerful descriptive adverbs and adjectives. Write down the following adjectives to describe the analyzed article or speech:

  • abstract
  • academic
  • brusque
  • cacophonous
  • casual
  • concrete
  • detached
  • emotional
  • esoteric
  • everyday
  • figurative
  • formal
  • jargon
  • literal
  • monosyllabic
  • nostalgic
  • ordinary
  • passionate
  • patriotic
  • precise
  • sentimental
  • shocking
  • idiomatic
  1. Respond

It is the last but not the least point. When you write the rhetorical analysis essay, remember that its main aim is to explain the impact of every device that was used by the author. Don’t list the arguments and devices. Analyze and explain their effectiveness.

  1. Always Proofread and Edit

Revision is one of the most important parts of writing an academic essay. There are many ways to make your final draft clear and free of mistakes in English. Various software may help to fix errors. Ask your parents or mates to help you with your assignment. You can also order editing from the English-speaking writers online.

We understand that it may seem not so easy. This sort of essay writing is a confusing and complicated option. Students have to take some practice to complete A+ writing piece. But if you have no time to practice and want to submit successful writing piece, it’s not a problem anymore. Nerdymates, the most reliable essay writing service on the web, provides an opportunity to get guaranteed great essay. They have a team of professional writers with a huge experience. They deal with all existing persuasive arguments, strategies, and literature/research methods. That’s why their help can’t be overestimated. Make a request on the official website of this service, talk to a member of Nerdymates’ team or assigned writer, and be sure that everything would be under control!


Speech analysis and transcription tools



Anvil, M. Kipp, University of Applied Sciences, Augsburg

http://www.anvil-software.org

“ANVIL is a free video annotation tool, developed by Michael Kipp. It offers multi-layered annotation based on a user-defined coding scheme. During coding the user can see color-coded elements on multiple tracks in time-alignment. Some special features are cross-level links, non-temporal objects, timepoint tracks, coding agreement analysis, 3D viewing of motion capture data and a project tool for managing whole corpora of annotation files. Originally developed for gesture research in 2000, ANVIL is now being used in many research areas including human-computer interaction, linguistics, ethology, anthropology, psychotherapy, embodied agents, computer animation and oceanography.

ANVIL can import data from phonetic tools like PRAAT which allow precise and comfortable speech transcription (see my video tutorial). Anvil can display waveform and pitch contour. Anvil's data files are XML-based. Exported tables can be used for analysis in statistical toolkits like SPSS or Statistica. The coming version will also be able to import ELAN files. ANVIL is written in Java and runs on Windows, Macintosh and Unix platforms.”

Audiamus, N. Thieberger, School of Language and Linguistics, University of Melbourne

http://www.nthieberger.net/audiamus.htm

“A tool for building corpora of linked transcripts and digitised media.

Audiamus instantiates the links to digitised media. It requires no segmentation of the sound/video file. Currently there is no limit to the size of the media file or the number of transcripts. Each ’card’ of the current model represents a single transcript (typically a complete side of a cassette). Time-aligned transcripts, as produced for example by SoundIndex or Transcriber are the input for Audiamus.

The transcripts in Audiamus are plain text and can be edited, as can the timecodes. Thus the data in Audiamus is the master copy of the transcript that is improved incrementally with use. To avoid the problem of data being locked up in proprietary formats there is a mass export function that dumps all linked text and timecodes to plain text files, or to whatever format the user selects.”

CSL, Computerized Speech Lab, Pentax Medical

http://www.pentaxmedical.com/pentax/en/99/1/Visi-Pitch-IV-Model-3950B-Computerized-Speech-Lab-CSL-Model-4500-and-4150B

“CSL is the most comprehensive PC-based system available for speech acquisition, analysis, editing, and playback. An integrated hardware/software system, the versatile platform is recognized internationally by both clinicians and researchers for its unique combination of sophistication, flexibility, and ease-of-use.

The system’s robust hardware meets the rigorous specifications required by speech professionals and researchers. It contains an external module for high-fidelity data acquisition (>86 dB dynamic range), DSP circuitry for real-time processing/display of speech parameters needed for therapy applications, and CD-quality playback for critical listening tasks. The core software is fully integrated with the hardware. It contains a rich set of easily applied analysis and editing features and is complemented by 15 application specific (e.g., clinical, linguistic, etc.) software modules and databases.

Built on Kay’s decades of experience in speech analysis, the CSL accommodates the many and varied needs of speech/voice clinicians, phoneticians, speech scientists, phoniatricians, and otolaryngologists. CSL was developed jointly with Speech Technology Research (STR) of Victoria, B.C., Canada

Current CSL options include:

  • Synthesis Program
  • Multi-Dimensional Voice Program (MDVP)
  • Voice Range Profile
  • Sona-Match
  • Delayed Auditory Feedback
  • Real-Time Spectrogram
  • CSL-Pitch1
  • Phonetic Database
  • Palatometer Database
  • IPA Transcription Tutorial
  • Disordered Voice Database
  • EGG Processing
  • Motor Speech Profile (MSP)
  • Signal Enhancement in Noise
  • Auditory Perception Program and Database (APP)
  • Condenser Microphone
  • DAT Interface and Four-Channel Input
  • Direct-to-Disk
  • Programmer’s Kit”

CSLU Toolkit, Center for Spoken Language Understanding, Oregon Graduate Institute

“The CSLU Toolkit has been supporting research, development and learning activities for spoken language systems since January, 1996. It is designed to support a wide range of research activities, including data capture and analysis, corpus development, research in multilingual recognition and understanding, dialogue design, speech synthesis speaker recognition and language recognition, among others. In addition, the Toolkit provides easy to use graphical authoring tools (CSLUrp) for rapid prototyping of spoken language systems for useful applications. Finally, the toolkit is designed to provide a good environment for learning about spoken language technology. The Toolkit has been used to teach short courses, and students taking these courses have produced novel and useful spoken language systems, as described on our short course page.

The Toolkit currently runs on Unix platforms which have Tcl/Tk (freely available).”

Dolmen, J. Eychenne, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies

http://dolmen.readthedocs.io/en/latest/

“Dolmen is a free, open-source software toolbox for data analysis in linguistics. It offers a user-friendly interface to manage, annotate and query language corpora. It is particularly well suited for dealing with time-aligned data. The main features it offers are:

  • Project management: organize files into projects and manage versions.
  • Extensible metadata: files can be annotated with properties, which allow you to sort and organize your data.
  • Interaction with Praat: Dolmen can read TextGrid files and open files directly in Praat.
  • Powerful search engine: build and save complex queries; search patterns across tiers.
  • Standard-based: Dolmen files are encoded in XML and Unicode.
  • Scripting engine: Dolmen can be extended with plugins written in JavaScript/JSON.

Dolmen runs on all major platforms (Windows, Mac OS X and GNU/Linux) and is freely available under the terms of the GNU General Public License (GPL).”

ELAN, EUDICO Linguistic Annotator, Max Plank Institute for Psycholinguistics

https://tla.mpi.nl/tools/tla-tools/elan/

“ELAN (EUDICO Linguistic Annotator) is an annotation tool that allows you to create, edit, visualize and search annotations for video and audio data. It was developed at the Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen, The Netherlands, with the aim to provide a sound technological basis for the annotation and exploitation of multi-media recordings. ELAN is specifically designed for the analysis of language, sign language, and gesture, but it can be used by everybody who works with media corpora, i.e., with video and/or audio data, for purposes of annotation, analysis and documentation.

ELAN supports:

  • display a speech and/or video signals, together with their annotations
  • time linking of annotations to media streams
  • linking of annotations to other annotations
  • unlimited number of annotation tiers as defined by the users
  • different character sets
  • export as tab-delimited text files
  • im- and export between ELAN and Shoebox
  • search options.”

ELAN - Linguistic annotator. Language archiving technology portal [Computer Software]. Nijmegen: Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics. Retrieved from https://tla.mpi.nl/tools/tla-tools/elan/

ELAN - Linguistic annotator. Language archiving technology portal [Computer Software]. Nijmegen: Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics. Retrieved from https://tla.mpi.nl/tools/tla-tools/elan/

GIPOS, Institute for Perception Research, Eindhoven

https://uilots-labs.wp.hum.uu.nl/resources/

“GIPOS stands for Graphical Interactive Processing of Speech. It is an integrated speech processing program. It provides the tools you need to create, view, play and manipulate waveforms, spectrograms and other forms of speech data. You’ll find:

  • fast spectrogram displays
  • real-time spectrum displays
  • on-line pitch measurements (SHS, PDT)
  • capabilities for labeling of waveform files
  • modification of pitch and durations contours using PIOLA, PSOLA or LPC
  • LPC-parametric file manipulations
  • waveform editing (cut, copy, paste, add, scale, fade, reverse, etc.)
  • filtering (Low-pass, high-pass, bandpass, band stop, etc.)
  • waveform recording with real-time sample-rate conversion option
  • sound compression (PCM, ADPCM, CELP, VSELP, LPC, MPEG)
  • simultaneous processing of multiple files (up to 15)
  • synchronous zoom & scroll in all charts
  • high level of interaction
  • different tasks can be performed in parallel, e.g.: while making a recording, turn on spectrogram display, zoom-in on a specific region, play and save a segment of the recorded part all at the same time iconic help cues, context dependent menu’s and other graphical user-interface features
  • command shell for more complex operations and for running in batch mode
  • undo/redo for the last 1000 operations
  • user macro definitions for function keys
  • all key combinations are user configurable
  • users can write their own programs to extend the standard functionality

GIPOS runs on SiliconGraphics and SUN workstations under Unix and on PCs under MS-Windows95 and Linux.”

ISA, Intelligent Speech Analyser, Oy Pitchsystems

“The main scopes of application include:

  • Phonetics
  • Phoniatrics
  • Logopedics
  • Audiology
  • Speech Analysis
  • Sound Analysis
  • Singing Analysis
  • Music Analysis
  • Music Instrument Analysis
  • Research on Children’s Crying
  • Research on Lung Sounds and Heart Sounds
  • Good Radio Voice Analysis
  • Sound Editing

All the analysis programs have been written using a machine language, because in this way ISA is many times faster than using a high level language. ISA is the unique software in the world. The use of ISA is very simple. All the analyses have their own windows. All the functions of the ISA are controlled by the mouse. All the displays can be listened to. ISA-software is running in Apple Macintosh computer.”

LaBB-CAT (formerly ONZE Miner), R. Fromont & J. Hay, New Zealand Institute of Language, Brain and Behaviour

http://labbcat.sourceforge.net

“LaBB-CAT is a browser-based linguistics research tool that stores audio or video recordings, text transcripts, and other annotations.

Annotations of various types can be automatically generated or manually added.

The transcripts and annotations can be searched for particular text or regular expressions. The search results, or entire transcripts, can be viewed or saved in a variety of formats, and the related parts of the recordings can be played or opened in acoustic analysis software, all directly through the web-browser.

  • Storage of Media and Transcripts
  • Automatic Annotation
  • Manual Annotation
  • Search”

lingWaves, WEVOSYS

https://www.wevosys.com/products/lingwaves/lingwaves.html

“lingWAVES has become one of the most used system for professional voice and speech analysis, biofeedback and documentation in the last years. A combination of standard and new technology analysis and processing together with an easy handling are the key features of this unique system.

lingWAVES module puzzle: The system consists of different modules managed by the lingWAVES basis user interface. A client manager allows a patient/client based analysis and documentation with the benefit of comparing and tracking results over time.

The modular character of lingWAVES allows to offer different module combinations (suites) so that a wide range of professional users can use the system, starting from speech and language therapy, over Otolaryngology /ENT up to services for professional singers and speakers. You can also upgrade a lingWAVES module at any time.

System Requirements: Windows 10 ( Mac OS with Boot Camp and installed Windows OS 10).”

MATLAB Signal Processing Toolbox, The Math Works

https://es.mathworks.com/products/signal.html

“The Signal Processing Toolbox provides a rich, customizable framework for digital signal processing (DSP). Built on a solid foundation of filter design and spectral analysis techniques, the toolbox contains powerful tools for algorithm development, signal and linear system analysis, and time-series data modeling. The toolbox is useful in applications such as speech and audio processing, communications, geophysics, real-time control, finance, radar, and medicine.

Signal and linear system models:

  • Digital and analog filter design, analysis, and implementation
  • FFT, DCT, and other transforms
  • Spectrum estimation and statistical signal processing
  • Parametric time-series modeling
  • Waveform generation
  • Windowing”

MelAn, J. M. Garrido, Departamento de Lengua Española y Lingüística General, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia

https://sites.google.com/site/juanmariagarrido/research/resources/tools/melan

“MelAn is a tool for the automatic stylisation, annotation and modelling of F0 contours. It is made of a set of Praat and R scripts that perform the tasks of F0 stylisation, labelling and modelling. They can be run on Windows, Mac OS X or Linux. It has been conceived for the automatic processing and analysis of large corpora.

The tool applies automatically the framework and methodology for the analysis of F0 contours proposed in Garrido (1996, 2001). This procedure is intended to obtain a symbolic representation of F0 contours which captures their perceptually relevant features, in the sense that it should be possible to build a ‘synthetic’ contour from the symbolic representation almost identical to the original contour from a perceptual point of view.

MelAn is available for public download.”

PCquirerX, Scicon R&D

http://www.sciconrd.com/pcquirerx.aspx

“PCquirer & Macquirer features include:

  • The same “LOOK-N-FEEL” between PCquirer & Macquirer with complete file interchangeability.
  • Complete waveform editing for single and multi-channel data.(data captured by X16 series)
  • PCquirer reads CSL, WAVES file formats directly.
  • Macquirer reads CSL, AIFF file formats directly.
  • Unmatched, high quality spectrograms.
  • FFT/LPC, Intensity.
  • Pitch records, only to be reproduced by workstation powered systems.
  • Complete labeling systems on main, spectrogram and pitch views.
  • Automatic Log Entry system with full online editing capability for addition of comments and other experiment related notes.
  • Direct printing onto high resolution laser printers as high as 2400 DPI.
  • Ability to save each window as bitmap(pc) & PICT(Mac) files for direct entry into word processors.
  • Fully complies with the Windows(WIN95/98/NT) and Mac(Power PC) operating system environments.
  • Full online help files for both PCquirer, and Macquirer.”

Phon, Y. Rose & G. Hedlund, The PhonBank Project, CHILDES (Child Language Data Exchange System), TalkBank

https://www.phon.ca

“Phon is a software program that greatly facilitates a number of tasks related to the analysis of transcript-based and acoustically-measured speech data. Built to support research in phonological development (including babbling), second language acquisition, and phonological disorders, Phon can also be used for virtually all types of phonological investigations (e.g. loanword phonology, fieldwork in phonology, sociolinguistic studies). Phon supports multimedia data linkage, unit segmentation (e.g. utterance, word), multiple-blind transcription, automatic labeling of data (features, syllabification), and systematic comparisons between target (model) and actual (produced) phonological forms. Phon is also equipped with many facilities for data analysis, including query methods for phonology (e.g. phones, features, syllables, ...) as well as acoustic data.

Version 2 of Phon brings together two of the most important areas of empirical investigation in the area of child phonology, as it integrates transcript-based analyses of phonological data with the facilities for acoustic analysis provided by Praat. With this new version of Phon, and in addition to the functions listed above, the user can now:

  • Import existing TextGrids into Phon sessions
  • generate textgrids from existing phon records
  • visualize textgrids directly into phon
  • send textgrids to praat for editing in a single click
  • run speech analysis functions directly from the phon query menu
  • export speech measurement data for further analysis

All of these functions are accessible through a user-friendly graphical interface. Databases managed within Phon can also be queried using a powerful search system adapted for the needs of the phonologist. This software program works on Mac OS X, Windows and Linux platforms and is compliant with the CHILDES (TalkBank) XML data format. Phon is being made freely available to the community as open-source software. Phon facilitates data exchange among researchers and is currently used for the elaboration of the shared PhonBank database, designed to support empirical needs of research in all areas of phonology and phonological development.”

Rose, Y., & MacWhinney, B. (2014). The PhonBank Project: Data and software-assisted methods for the study of phonology and phonological development. In J. Durand, U. Gut, & G. Kristoffersen (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of corpus phonology (pp. 308-401). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Retrieved from http://www.ucs.mun.ca/~yrose/Publications/files/2014-Rose_MacWhinney-PhonBank.pdf

Rose, Y., & MacWhinney, B. (2014). The PhonBank Project: Data and software-assisted methods for the study of phonology and phonological development. In J. Durand, U. Gut, & G. Kristoffersen (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of corpus phonology (pp. 308-401). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Retrieved from http://www.ucs.mun.ca/~yrose/Publications/files/2014-Rose_MacWhinney-PhonBank.pdf

PHONEDIT Signaix, Laboratoire Parole et Langage, Université de Provence

http://www.lpl-aix.fr/~lpldev/phonedit/

“PHONÉDIT is a signal editor that permits to record, edit, labelize, and analyse various types of signals. This software is dedicated to speech analysis. However it has the capability to analyse also aerodynamic parameters, electro-palatographic frames and kynesiographic movements.

It reads and writes the most common kind of file formats like MS-WAVE, CSL, Signalyze, ASCII, or raw binaries.

Many functions are applicable on the edited signals:

  • FFT: fast Fourier transform analysis, synchronous with the cursors movements.
  • Spectrogram: 3D spectral representation of a signal. Supports narrow and wide band analysis.
  • F0 detection: two methods are proposed for extracting the fundamental frequency from a speech signal. The comb algorithm based on a spectral analysis, and the AMDF algorithm based on a temporal analysis.
  • LPC: Linear Prediction Coding, for formantic studies.
  • RMS intensity: dB or linear, selection of the integration time.
  • Statistics: mean, standard deviation, Jitter/Shimmer extraction

It runs with recent Windows operating system on PC.

PHONEDIT Signaix is free of charge and can be downloaded.”

PitchWorks, Scicon R&D

http://www.sciconrd.com/pitchworks.aspx

  • “PitchWorks is the main tool for any intonation studies, with very easy user interface.
  • It uses two methods of pitch extraction, Cepstral and Autocorrelation.
  • PitchWorks is designed for up to 10 levels of tiers for TOBI style labeling, with virtually unlimited number of labels in each tier.
  • Labels can be of different fonts, colors or sizes.
  • The tier information can be extracted to a log file by click of mouse.
  • Each screen can be saved as a bitmap for direct entry into word document.
  • Pitch Works reads many different file types of any size.
  • 10 levels of tiers
  • Look & feel with file interchangeability between PC & Mac
  • TOBI style labeling
  • Capable of reading many different file types
  • FFT, LPC, Intensity, Spectrogram, Formant tracking, ... Cepstral and Autocorrelation. pitch extraction methods.
  • Synchronized cursor between windows. Automatic data logging. Direct printing from every window. Save each window as a bitmap (PC) & PICT (Mac) for imports to word documents. Window 2K/XP and Mac OSX compatible.”

Praat, P. Boersma & D. Weenink, Institute of Phonetic Sciences, University of Amsterdam

http://www.praat.org/

“The computer program Praat is a research, publication, and productivity tool for phoneticians.

This comprehensive speech analysis, synthesis, and manipulation package includes general numerical and statistical stuff, is built on a general-purpose GUI shell for handling objects, and produces publication-quality graphics.

Speech analysis:

  • spectral analysis (spectrograms)
  • pitch analysis
  • formant analysis
  • intensity analysis
  • jitter, shimmer, voice breaks
  • cochleagram
  • excitation pattern

Speech synthesis:

  • from pitch, formant, and intensity
  • articulatory synthesis
  • Klatt acoustic synthesis

Listening experiments:

  • identification and discrimination tests

Labelling and segmentation:

  • label intervals and time points on multiple tiers
  • use phonetic alphabet
  • use sound files up to 2 gigabytes (3 hours)

Speech manipulation:

  • change pitch and duration contours
  • filtering

Learning algorithms:

  • feedforward neural networks
  • discrete and stochastic Optimality Theory

Statistics:

  • multidimensional scaling
  • principal component analysis
  • discriminant analysis

Graphics:

  • high quality for your articles and thesis
  • produce Encapsulated PostScript files
  • integrated mathematical and phonetic symbols

Programmability:

  • easy programmable scripting language
  • communicate with other programs
  • (the sendpraat source code)
  • create hypertext manuals with sound I/O

Portability:

  • machine-independent binary files
  • read and write many sound and other file types

Configurability:

  • grow or shrink menus
  • save prefs for fonts, views, sound devices

Versions for Macintosh, Windows, Linux, FreeBSD, SGI, Solaris, HPUX”

Boersma, P., & Weenink, D. (2016). Praat: Doing phonetics by computer. [Computer Software] Amsterdam: Department of Language and Literature, University of Amsterdam. Retrieved from http://www.praat.org/

Boersma, P., & Weenink, D. (2016). Praat: Doing phonetics by computer. [Computer Software] Amsterdam: Department of Language and Literature, University of Amsterdam. Retrieved from http://www.praat.org/

Boersma, P., & Weenink, D. (2016). Praat: Doing phonetics by computer. [Computer Software] Amsterdam: Department of Language and Literature, University of Amsterdam. Retrieved from http://www.praat.org/

Boersma, P., & Weenink, D. (2016). Praat: Doing phonetics by computer. [Computer Software] Amsterdam: Department of Language and Literature, University of Amsterdam. Retrieved from http://www.praat.org/

Scripts for Praat

Atria, J. J. (2014). Praat scripts. Scripts. London: Speech Hearing and Phonetic Sciences, University College London. Retrieved from http://www.ucl.ac.uk/~ucjt465/scripts/praat.html

Crosswhite, K. (2007). Praat scripts and other materials. Rochester, NY: Center for the Sciences of Language, University of Rochester. Retrieved from http://web.archive.org/web/20030620172734/ling.rochester.edu/people/cross/scripts.html

de Looze, C. (n.d.). Praat scripts. Resources. Dublin: Reilly Lab, Trinity Centre for Bioengineering, Trinity College Dublin. Retrieved from http://celinedelooze.com/Homepage/Resources.html

Dellwo, V. (2015). Praat plug-ins and scripts. Material. Zƒrich: Phonetics Laboratory, University of Zurich. Retrieved from https://www.pholab.uzh.ch/en/leute/dellwo/software.html

Kawahara, S. (2010). Scripts. Resources. Tokyo: The Institute of Cultural and Linguistic Studies, Keio University. Retrieved from http://user.keio.ac.jp/~kawahara/resource.html

Lennes, M. (2017). SpeCT - Speech Corpus Toolkit for Praat. First release on GitHub [Data set]. Zenodo. Retrieved from http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.375923

Lœvenbruck, H. (n.d.). Praat scripts. Grenoble: Laboratoire de Psychologie et Neurocognition, Université Pierre Mendès-France. Retrieved from http://lpnc.univ-grenoble-alpes.fr/Helene-Loevenbruck?lang=fr#Tools

Praat Scripts. (n.d.). Lab Tools. Evanston, IL: Speech Communication Research Group, Department of Linguistics, Northwestern University. Retrieved from http://groups.linguistics.northwestern.edu/speech_comm_group/labtools.html

Praat script resources. (2009). Los Angeles, CA: UCLA Phonetics Laboratory, Department of Linguistics, University of California Los Angeles. Retrieved from http://phonetics.linguistics.ucla.edu/facilities/acoustic/praat.html

Remijsen, B. (2011). Bert Remijsen’s Praat scripts. Edinburgh: Linguistics & English Language Department, The University of Edinburgh. Retrieved from http://www.lel.ed.ac.uk/~bert/praatscripts.html

Sadowsky, S. (2016). Recursos de Praat. Software y Scripts. Santiago de Chile: Universidad Católica de Chile. Retrieved from http://sadowsky.cl/praat-es.html

Scripts. (2015). Software and Resources. Victoria, BC: Department of Linguistics, University of Victoria. Retrieved from https://www.uvic.ca/humanities/linguistics/resources/software/index.php

Toscano, J. (n.d.). Praat Script Archives. Retrieved from http://sites.google.com/site/praatscripts/

Winn, M. (2014). Praat scripts. Seattle WA: University of Washington. Retrieved from http://mattwinn.com/praat.html

Praat manuals, tutorials and support

Praat User’s Group

Speech analysis tools: Praat

Prosogram, P. Mertens, Department of Linguistics, KU Leuven

https://sites.google.com/site/prosogram/home

“Prosogram is a tool for the analysis and transcription of pitch variations in speech. Its stylization simulates the auditory perception of pitch by the listener. A key element in tonal perception is the segmentation of speech into syllable-sized elements, resulting from changes in the spectrum (sound timbre) and intensity. The tool also provides measurements of prosodic features for individual syllables (such as duration, pitch, pitch movement direction and size), as well as prosodic properties of longer stretches of speech (such as speech rate, proportion of silent pauses, pitch range, and pitch trajectory). The tool can easily interact with other software tools. It is used as the first step in automatic phonological transcription of intonation, the detection of sentence stress and intonation boundaries.

Processing steps:

  • Calculate acoustic parameters: F0, intensity, voicing (V/UV).
  • Obtain a segmentation into units of the types indicated above. Select the relevant units (e.g. vowels, syllables). Select the voiced portion of these units, that has sufficient intensity/loudness (using difference thresholds relative to the local peak).
  • Stylize the F0 of the selected time intervals.
  • Determine pitch range used in speech fragment. Plot stylized pitch and some annotation tiers (text, phonetic transcription). Use a musical (semitone) scale and add calibration lines at every 2 ST for easy interpretation of pitch intervals.

The system is implemented as a Praat script.”

SegProso, J. M. Garrido, Departamento de Lengua Española y Lingüística General, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia

https://sites.google.com/site/juanmariagarrido/research/resources/tools/segproso

“SegProso is a Praat-based tool for the automatic segmentation of speech corpora into prosodic units:

  • syllables
  • stress groups (SG)
  • intonation groups (IG)
  • breath groups (BG)

SegProso is currently available for Catalan, Spanish, Brazilian Portuguese and French. Other languages can be added with minimum or none adaptation of the scripts.

The tool uses a full rule and knowledge-based approach to perform the boundary detection tasks.

SegProso is available for public download.”

SFS, Speech Filing System, Speech, Hearing and Phonetic Sciences, University College London

http://www.phon.ucl.ac.uk/resource/sfs/

“SFS 4/Windows is a free computing environment for PCs for conducting research into the nature of speech. It comprises software tools, file and data formats, subroutine libraries, graphics, special programming languages and tutorial documentation. It performs standard operations such as acquisition, replay, display and labelling, spectrographic and formant analysis and fundamental frequency estimation. It comes with a large body of ready made tools for signal processing, synthesis and recognition, as well as support for your own software development.

Analysis programs:

  • Acquisition and replay
  • Waveform processing
  • Filtering
  • Signal editing
  • Spectrographic analysis
  • Resampling and speed/pitch changing
  • Laryngographic processing
  • Fundamental frequency estimation (from SP or from LX)
  • Formant frequency estimation & formant synthesis
  • Filterbank analysis/synthesis
  • Automatic annotation
  • Spectral cross-sections
  • Waveform envelope
  • HTK Markov Modelling Toolkit 1.2

SFS is not public domain software, its intellectual property is owned by Mark Huckvale, University College London. However SFS may be used and copied without charge as long as the program remains unmodified and continues to carry this copyright notice.

Operating environments:
WIN32: Microsoft Visual C, WIN32 API. Windows 95/98/NT/2000.
Unix: GNU gcc compiler and X-Windows. SunOs, Solaris, Linux, etc.
MSDOS: Protected mode 32-bit with GNU compiler DJGPP. ”

SFS/RTGRAM, Speech, Hearing and Phonetic Sciences, University College London

http://www.phon.ucl.ac.uk/resource/sfs/rtgram/

“RTGRAM is a free program for displaying a real-time scrolling spectrographic display of an audio signal. With RTGRAM you can monitor the spectro-temporal characteristics of sounds being played into the computer’s microphone or line input ports. RTGRAM is optimised for speech signals and has options for different sampling rates, analysis bandwidths, temporal resolution and colour maps.

RTGRAM is not public domain software, its intellectual property is owned by Mark Huckvale, University College London. However RTGRAM may be used and copied without charge as long as the program remains unmodified and continue to carry its copyright notice. ”

Signalyze, LinguistList Plus

http://www.signalyze.com

“Signalyze is not currently available.

Signalyze is legacy voice and acoustic signal analysis software for the Macintosh developed by Eric Keller, Professor Emeritus, University of Lausanne, administered by Linguist Plus, and formerly distributed by Agora Language Marketplace. It requires Mac System 8, 9, or the Classic environment under OS X. It will not currently run without Mac OS 9 or the Classic environment.

More information on Signalyze and its functions can be found here.”

Sona, IKP, Institute for Communications Research and Phonetics, University of Bonn

“The program SONA is a versatile experimental tool for finding and visualizing relevant information in both the time and the frequency domain of a speech signal.

In the time domain, the program allows:

  • digital recording of speech of nearly unlimited length with16 bit quantization
  • oscillographic representation with freely scaleable time and amplitude resolution
  • all kinds of signal manipulation (waveform editing)
  • reproduction of single or concatenated speech segments
  • measurement of their duration and intensity

Furthermore, the segments can be marked and transcribed phonetically (Labeling).

In the frequency domain (lower half of the screen), the program generates a digital spectral analysis of the speech signal in 2D or 3D. The 3D representation of the time dependent power spectrum is known as Visible Speech or sonagram and is one of the most important practical tools of linguistics and phonetics. Sonagrams are represented in gray scale or colour coding in one of five frequency sections (0.5 to 8 KHz) with variable breadth. One mouse click enables the user to listen to a selected segment or measure frequency and intensity of its spectrum.”

Sonogram, C. Lauer

“Sonogram is a highly flexible audio spectrum analyzer for the analysis of sound, music and speech signals in the frequency-domain using different new algorithms.”

SoundIndex, M. Jacobson

http://michel.jacobson.free.fr/soundIndex/index.html

“SoundIndex est un outil qui alie un éditeur de texte structuré en XML avec un éditeur de son. Il permet d’écrire des tags <audio> à n’importe quel niveau dans l’arborescence d’un fichier XML en mettant comme valeurs pour les attributs start et end celles qui sont lues dans l’éditeur de son. L’interprétation des tags <audio> se fait par le biais de feuilles de styles écrites en XSL.”

SoundScope, GW Instruments

http://www.gwinst.com/macsftwr/html/sos_summary.html

“SoundScope software digitizes, analyzes, presents and databases speech and sound waveforms on Macintosh computers.

SoundScope is a third generation speech and sound analysis product line that represents a breakthrough in ease-of-use and advanced features.

Record a sound, perform analysis, extract key values, and compute statistics all with a few clicks of the mouse. Scroll through data, adjust the scale or display range, and even change the parameters for sound analysis computations.

  • Record, view, analyze, play, store & print sound waveforms.
  • See spectrograms in full color.
  • View fundamental frequency (Fo), jitter (pitch perturbation), shimmer (amplitude perturbation), frequency spectra (FFT), linear predictive coding (LPC), and much more.
  • Compute statistics such as percent voiced, percent unvoiced and percent silent.
  • Design your own instrument screen, no programming required.
  • Customize menus and displays.
  • Record and playback up to maximum CPU memory (e.g. record for 100 seconds at 22kSamples/sec with 4.5 MB of free memory).
  • Enter notes and observations into the integrated text editor.”

Speech Analyzer, SIL International

http://software.sil.org/speech-analyzer/

“You can use Speech Analyzer to do the following tasks:

  • Perform fundamental frequency, spectrographic and spectral analysis, and duration measurements.
  • Add phonemic, orthographic, tone, and gloss transcriptions to phonetic transcriptions in an interlinear format.
  • Perform ethnomusicological analysis of music recordings.
  • Use slowed playback, repeat loops and overlays to assist with perception and mimicry of sounds for language learning.

Operating system: Windows XP with Service Pack 3 (SP3), Windows Vista or Windows 7.”

SpeechStudio, Laryngograph Ltd.

http://www.laryngograph.com/pr_studio.htm

“Speech Studio is a software and hardware package, which has been specially designed for phoneticians, speech scientists and quantitative work by ENT clinicians and SLT’s. It supports data recording direct to hard disk, real-time displays, and instantaneous quantitative analysis and pattern target mode for speech training.

Speech Studio software is Windows-based, user friendly, and feature rich.

Speech Studio also includes a very powerful program, which can make an extensive range of quantitative analysis on connected speech. It is seamlessly integrated with the data recording and display program. It can work on different kinds of speech pattern elements and produce powerful graph families. The speech elements include fundamental frequency, speech amplitude, contact quotient, nasality and friction.”

Transana, Spurgeon Woods LLC

https://www.transana.com/

“Transana is designed to facilitate the transcription and qualitative analysis of video and audio data. It provides a way to view video or play audio recordings, create a transcript, and link places in the transcript to frames in the video. It provides tools for identifying and organizing analytically interesting portions of video or audio files, as well as for attaching keywords to those video or audio clips. It also features database and file manipulation tools that facilitate the organization and storage of large collections of digitized video.”

TranscriberAG

http://transag.sourceforge.net/

“TranscriberAG is designed for assisting the manual annotation of speech signals. It provides a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI) for segmenting long duration speech recordings, transcribing them, labeling speech turns, topic changes and acoustic conditions.

TranscriberAG is geared toward the needs of the speech research community, but its features might be found useful for other applications. It uses the Annotation Graph format as native format but can read a number of other annotation formats.

TranscriberAG is distributed as free software under the GNU General Public License GPLv3.”

TranscriberAG. A tool for segmenting, labeling and transcribing speech. [Computer Software] Paris: DGA. Retrieved from http://transag.sourceforge.net/

TranscriberAG. A tool for segmenting, labeling and transcribing speech. [Computer Software] Paris: DGA. Retrieved from http://transag.sourceforge.net/

WaveSurfer, Centre for Speech Technology, KTH

http://www.speech.kth.se/wavesurfer/

“WaveSurfer is an Open Source tool for sound visualization and manipulation. It has been designed to suit both novice and advanced users. WaveSurfer has a simple and logical user interface that provides functionality in an intuitive way and which can be adapted to different tasks. It can be used as a stand-alone tool for a wide range of tasks in speech research and education. Typical applications are speech/sound analysis and sound annotation/transcription. WaveSurfer can also serve as a platform for more advanced/specialized applications. This is accomplished either through extending the WaveSurfer application with new custom plug-ins or by embedding WaveSurfer visualization components in other applications.

  • Multi-platform - Linux, Windows 95/98/NT/2K/XP, Macintosh, Sun Solaris, HP-UX, FreeBSD, and SGI IRIX
  • Flexible interface - handles multiple sounds
  • Common sound file formats - reads, and writes WAV, AU, AIFF, MP3, CSL, SD, Ogg/Vorbis, and NIST/Sphere
  • Transcription file formats - reads, and writes HTK (and MLF), TIMIT, ESPS/Waves+ and Phondat. Support for encodings and Unicode
  • Unlimited file size - playback and recording directly from/to disk
  • Sound analysis - e.g. spectrogram and pitch analysis
  • Customizable - users can create their own configurations. Localization support
  • Extensible - new functionality can be added through a plugin architecture
  • Embeddable - WaveSurfer can be used as a widget in custom applications
  • Scriptable - hosts a built-in script interpreter”

WEDW Edit Waveform Program, Speech Research Lab, University of Delaware & A.I. duPont Hospital for Children

http://www.asel.udel.edu/speech/Spch_proc/wedw.htm

“Windows EDW (WEDW) is a fundamentally new program which attempts to provide similar functionality to the Unix/DOS version (EDW), but with a very different user interface.

WEDW retains some of the appearance of EDW in that a waveform display region is always present while spectrogram and pitch marking windows can be toggled on and off as desired. Both EDW and WEDW read and write waveforms in an extended RIFF (Microsoft .WAV) format that includes waveform segment definitions and both are also able to read an older .WAV format that was the original format used by EDW.

  • Waveform
  • Labels
  • Spectrogram
  • Pitch Tracking

WEDW provides a way to display special symbols such as IPA phonetic symbols when a font for the symbols is available.

Prosodic features of duration, F0, and amplitude can be changed.”

WinCECIL, SIL International

https://software.sil.org/wincecil/

“WinCECIL is a speech analysis tool based on the DOS CECIL version 2.1 program. WinCECIL provides support for recording, analyzing, and saving of 3 second sections of speech. WinCECIL requires a 20MHz 80386 computer or better running Microsoft Windows 3.1 or higher. It also requires a Windows Multimedia-compatible sound card.

Use this program to view speech recordings, automatic pitch contours, and spectrograms. Recording limit is 3 seconds.

Most of the functions of the WinCECIL program has been superseded by the Speech Analyzer program. This product has been discontinued and is no longer supported.”

Winpitch, Pitch Instruments

http://www.winpitch.com

  • “WinPitchW10 for prosodic research, with on the fly aligner, real-time spectrograph, multi-tracking F0 analysis, video and audio analysis, and much more.
  • WinPitch LTL W8 for language teaching, with all the features of WinPitch Pro plus authoring functions to produce and test pronunciation lessons for learners.
  • WinPitch LTL Only a dedicated version for language learners, using pronunciation exercises prepared with WinPitch LTL. Includes an automatic aligner for error detection and prosodic morphing functions.

All these versions run under Windows® XP, Vista, Windows 7 and Windows 8. They also run on a Mac computer with an appropriate Windows emulator installed (such as BootCamp)”

WinSnoori, Y. Laprie, Université de Lorraine

https://members.loria.fr/YLaprie/WinSnoori/index.html

“For several years we have undertaken the development of the software WinSnoori which is for both speech scientists as a research tool and teachers in phonetics as an illustration tool. It consists of five types of tools:

  • to edit speech signals
  • to annotate phonetically or orthographically speech signals. WinSnorri offers tools to explore annotated corpora automatically
  • to analyse speech with several spectral analyses and monitor spectral peaks along time
  • to study prosody. Besides pitch calculation it is possible to synthesise new signals by modifying the F0 curve and/or the speech rate
  • to generate parameters for the Klatt synthesiser (in the Motif version). A user friendly graphic interface and copy synthesis tools allows the user to generate files for the Klatt synthesiser easily.”

xassp, IPDS Institut für Phonetik und digitale Sprachverarbeitung, Christian-Albrechts-Universität, Kiel

http://www.ipds.uni-kiel.de/forschung/xassp.en.html

“xassp is an application for displaying, analysing and processing speech signals. It is intended for segmental and prosodic labelling, but can be used for different purposes, because of its numerous configuration possibilities.

User-definable configurations allow to open several associated files together and to automatically perform certain analyses of the speech signal. The configuration Segmental, e.g., is intended for segmental labelling. The windows that are opened when choosing this configuration are:

  • a speech signal that can be selected in the main dialog
  • a sonagram that is computed by means of spectral analysis of the speech signal
  • the labels that are associated with the speech signal

The configuration Prosodic is used for prosodic labelling. When choosing this configuration the following windows are opened:

  • the selected speech signal
  • the fundamental frequency computed from the speech signal
  • the labels that are associated with the speech signal

Although xassp is mainly intended for segmental and prosodic labelling, it provides several additional possibilities for analysing speech signals:

  • Fundamental frequency (F0): The fundamental frequency can be displayed in different ways (range, linear or logarithmic scale)
  • Energy
  • Sonagram (FFT and LPC)
  • Section (FFT and LPC)”

Tools for the acoustic analysis of speech

Tools for labelling and annotation of speech corpora


Speech analysis and transcription tools
Joaquim Llisterri, Departament de Filologia Espanyola, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona

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